I wasn't as prepared to answer the follow up question, why is more than one pass needed? Ok, so we overwrite the file once, how can it then be recovered? I didn't have a good answer, but bumbled through a guess that it was probably like a notepad where writing on the top sheet leaves traces on the pad even after the sheet is removed. To get a better idea of how people recover data, a friend pointed me to an excellent article by Peter Gutmann called Secure Deletion of Data from Magnetic and Solid-State Memory. He gives a nice summary of the basic idea:
In conventional terms, when a one is written to disk the media records a one, and when a zero is written the media records a zero. However the actual effect is closer to obtaining a 0.95 when a zero is overwritten with a one, and a 1.05 when a one is overwritten with a one. Normal disk circuitry is set up so that both these values are read as ones, but using specialised circuitry it is possible to work out what previous "layers" contained. The recovery of at least one or two layers of overwritten data isn't too hard to perform by reading the signal from the analog head electronics with a high-quality digital sampling oscilloscope, downloading the sampled waveform to a PC, and analysing it in software to recover the previously recorded signal.Sometimes an oscilloscope may not be enough and you might need to use magnetic force microscopy or other techniques that require very expensive equipment. It should also be pointed out that the article was written 15 years ago, and hard drive densities have increased a lot in that time period. Microscopy techniques have no doubt improved as well, but it is still going to be much more difficult to recover data from modern drives. In the 2006 NIST Guidelines for Media Sanitization, they suggest that a single pass is enough to clear data:
For some media, clearing media would not suffice for purging. However, for ATA disk drives manufactured after 2001 (over 15 GB) the terms clearing and purging have converged. Studies have shown that most of today’s media can be effectively cleared and purged by one overwrite using current available sanitization technologies.In short, it appears to be cost prohibitive to recover data that has been wiped with a single pass. Lets face it, for most of the data on your computer it would probably cost more to recover than the attacker could ever get back by stealing that information, and most likely there are much faster and easier ways to steal your data.